Research paper on lean six sigma


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He and J. He, Y. Zhou and X. Han, M. Zhang, and K. Zhang: Science of Science and Management of S. Verver, J.

Bisgaard and R. Does: Journal of Healthcare Quality, Vol. Does and H. All Rights Reserved. Log In. Paper Titles.

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Application of Lean Production in Company K p. Article Preview. Abstract: Lean Six Sigma, which is the integration of Lean Production and Six Sigma, can improve process, cut down the cost, and gain customer satisfaction. Add to Cart.

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma

Advanced Materials Research Volumes Main Theme:. Engineering Solutions for Manufacturing Processes. Edited by:. Establish any ground-rules or boundaries associated with the next phase, based upon the results of the preceding phase. Examples would be to set a time window for collecting data in the Measure phase or a capital budget limit for a solution to be developed in the Improve phase. Reviewers need to be familiar with the Lean Six Sigma methodology and the structured approach to problem solving. They can easily derail a project team by asking the wrong question for the given phase.

For instance, asking a team to identify the root cause of the problem during the Measure Phase Gate review will force them to jump to conclusions. That question should not be asked until the Analyze Phase Gate review. The Black Belt who is part of the review team should ensure the reviewers are aware of what questions the team should be prepared to answer, and which questions are not appropriate for that Phase Gate review. The reviewers often include senior leaders from the organizations or departments with responsibility for the process being analyzed.

If the team is encountering resistance to their activities or need special access or support, to conduct the next phase of the project they should be requesting that from the reviewers. An example might be to have access to certain data records or to have operators support a measurement systems analysis of the testing methodology.

lean six sigma research paper topics - Foro ITLA

The response of the reviewers to these requests is a signal to the rest of the organization of the importance of the Lean Six Sigma initiative. Many of these tools and techniques were in use long before the Lean Six Sigma methodology was formulated, and have been incorporated into this methodology. One of the powerful aspects of Lean Six Sigma is that multiple tools are available for use in each phase.

A team can then choose the tool or technique that best fits their unique situation. Organizations will often have a favorite set of techniques based upon their corporate culture or historical preferences. These tools and techniques are organized based upon the types of analysis in which they are used.

Many of these could be used in multiple phases of a Lean Six Sigma project, depending upon the problem and analysis being conducted. Process analysis tools and techniques are often associated with the Lean portion of the analysis. They help to describe the process and understand its efficiency. Visual analysis tools and techniques are used with virtually every problem-solving methodology. These techniques can be used in multiple phases. Their value is that they are quick and easy to understand.

They are also excellent communication techniques with senior management and the operations or organizations that will be affected by the solution.

Research Papers on Six Sigma – Comparing Six Sigma, Lean, and TQM

The statistical analysis tools and techniques are often associated with the Six Sigma portion of the analysis. The statistical tools help us to make sense of the data and to determine what is significant and what is not. The use of statistical software such as Excel Analysis Tool Pak or the Minitab application has minimized the amount of mathematical computation that the team members must do.

However, they still need to understand which statistical techniques to use in each situation and how to interpret the results. Lean Six Sigma projects must also be able to interact with stakeholders and customers. There are several techniques that have proven effective in this regard. Some of these are based upon understanding the perspective of external stakeholders and some of these are useful for organizing and communicating with internal stakeholders, such as team members.

In order to illustrate how Lean Six Sigma works, I will use the methodology to solve a hypothetical problem. Let me set the stage:. Some mornings when you prepare to leave home for work, you can't find your keys. Searching causes delays and you miss your train or bus. Now you need to wait for someone else to arrive to open the office. Not to mention, your spouse has the same problem when they get to work. The problem has occurred multiple times and your boss has remarked about it. Something must be done to ensure it does not happen again.

You and your spouse are the primary customers of this process. Your goal is twofold: a leave for work on time, and b have the correct keys with you when you leave for work. This leads to one primary CTQ, the keys are in a known location and you can grab them and take them with you when you leave home in the morning.

You will not include everything else you do to get ready for work in the morning such as breakfast, showering, and getting dressed — except to the extent that they impact the keys. The goal for the project Charter is to create and implement a process that results in the immediate acquisition of the correct keys in the morning when leaving for work.

In this phase you create a process map that shows all the possibilities for what happens to the keys at night. The process starts with arrival at home and ends with arrival at the office the next morning. The process has different branches depending upon whether it was a weekday, weekend or holiday, whether you went out that evening or stayed in, and whether you have inclement weather requiring additional preparation to leave, such as finding an umbrella or a cold-weather coat.

In creating the map, you realized that the process on weekends and holidays varied so widely you could not even map it, but the process during the week was relatively stable. This is your As-Is process map. You applied a time metric to each step and a success or yield metric. Of course, many of the steps, especially those spent searching in the morning, had no value-added time associated with them.

Lean Six Sigma: Value Stream Mapping

In fact, the only value-added steps were the step of placing the keys on your desk when arriving home and picking up your keys in the morning. A challenge you faced with the process mapping and measurement was to define a pass or fail condition for each step. In some cases it was obvious, in others you had to think through the purpose of the step to determine the desired outcome.

You then collected data for four weeks. To do this you created and used a check sheet every night at bedtime to determine what you had done that evening when arriving home from work and then noted how much time each step required. You also created a check sheet for your activities in the morning, but you normally did not complete that until you arrived at work. Finally, you documented what you did with the keys on each day of the weekend and on the one holiday that fell within that four-week period.

A significant challenge in the data collection was the Hawthorne Effect. This is the name given to the condition where the measurement of a parameter changes what people do. If they know they are being measured, their behavior changes to optimize the measure. By completing the check sheet every night, you were changing your behavior.

So you were careful that even if you realized at night that the keys were not in the correct place on your desk, you did not go then to find them, but waited until the morning as would normally occur. Now that there is data, the analysis can begin.


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An obvious problem is that there is no process defined for weekends and holidays. But even during the weekdays you find that your process is unstable. There is minor common cause variation most of the time, but on six of the weekdays there was a major problem finding the keys. You create a Fishbone diagram to determine the root causes, and you brainstormed seventeen possible causes for uncertainty in the location of keys in the morning. Even though you were brainstorming and normally would not reject any ideas, you choose not to include the intervention of space aliens as one of the causes — although it was suggested by your spouse.

Based upon your analysis, you find that five of the possible root causes could have contributed to the six occurrences of the problem in your data set. In doing this you find that there is a major difference in what happens to your keys when there has been inclement weather. It is doubtful that weather causes keys to change location by themselves, so you must do something different when there is bad weather. This points to the need to understand your process for removing and storing your inclement weather apparel.

This points to a process problem. You determine that there are two contributing root causes. Now it is time to create a solution. First you and your spouse decided on the process changes that need to occur, and created a selection matrix to assess the options. One idea was to place a large hook on the door so that the keys could be hooked there whenever someone returned home.

However, that option was not very decorative. A second option was to chain the keys to your belt or purse, but that was rejected because chains didn't fit your style of dressing.

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