Reconstruction was a period of time in history when it occurred after the civil war. These challenges have been escalating through years. The Civil War and other historical events would bring the United States to the forefront of a drastic transformation. This would have lasting implications on not only those who lived through the time period, but also those who would live in the future, revolutionary America. The social and constitutional developments that occurred as a result of the Civil War and the Reconstruction Era would be deemed to a great extent revolutionary.
They represented…. The Civil War was one that separated our country and shaped its future. The healing process afterwards was not easy, and provided the leaders of the United States with difficult tasks and challenges ahead.
Reconstruction after the Civil War was meant to help put our country back together, but it ended up being a disappointing failure. As the Civil War came to a close, multiple questions had to be asked. How would the Confederacy be allowed back and with what punishments? Would black men have full….
Reconstruction in The South to the s After the Civil War, r econstruction was a difficult process, especially in the South. Also during reconstruction there was a lot changing for the blacks as well. At least 10 percent of state voters takes a promise….
The period of Reconstruction began during the Civil War and ended in This era is known for the advancements made in favor of racial equality. These improvements included the fourteenth amendment citizenship and equal protection under the law to blacks and the fifteenth amendment voting rights for blacks of the Constitution. Yet, with the end of Reconstruction in , the Republican Party lost control of the southern governments and the Democratic Party took over.
This shift in power was…. Slavery was one of the biggest issues in the United States. Once the Civil War and Reconstruction Era ended in the thirteenth amendment was created to free slaves. All former slaves moved on to do their separate things. Some reunited with their families and moved north, while others stayed close to their previous owners who provided sanctuary. African American population patterns can be traced using maps published in the atlases created by the U.
Census Bureau for each census taken from …. The Civil War ended in , Following that was a time called reconstruction. Although this was an exceptional accomplishment by congress not everyone was pleased with it. As a result of this reconstruction failed because an abounding amount of people did not wish for the new amendments.
The new additions included giving now free slaves the right to work…. The Civil War remains to be one of the most important events and turning points in American history. Following the Civil War, came Reconstruction of the South; the North intervened once again after their defeat to rebuild the South. Many may argue the significance of Reconstruction, specifically the Radical Reconstruction.
Was Radical Reconstruction really radical? Although progress was made and changes were put forth legally, the rep imbedded racism in the South stops the effectiveness of Radical…. Many remember it as a war of slavery.
Civil War Reconstruction Essay
Some remember it as a war of states ' rights. A few only know it for Abraham Lincoln 's shining moments. It contained sections prohibiting discrimination in public accommodations Title II ; in state and municipal facilities, including schools Titles III and IV ; and—incorporating the Powell Amendment—in any program receiving federal aid Title V. Having passed the House, the act faced its biggest hurdle in the Senate. President Johnson and Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield of Montana tapped Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota to build Senate support for the measure and fend off the efforts of a determined southern minority to stall it.
President Johnson signed the bill into law on July 2, The legislation suspended the use of literacy tests and voter disqualification devices for five years, authorized the use of federal examiners to supervise voter registration in states that used tests or in which less than half the voting-eligible residents registered or voted, directed the U. Attorney General to institute proceedings against use of poll taxes, and provided criminal penalties for violations of the act.
Passage of the Civil Rights Act of dealt the deathblow to southern congressional opposition. On March 7, , marchers led by future Representative John R.
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As with the brutality in Birmingham, public reaction was swift and, if possible, even more powerful. The sight of them rolling over us like human tanks was something that had never been seen before. After President Johnson addressed a Joint Session of Congress to speak about the events in Selma, legislative action was swift. The bill that quickly moved through both chambers suspended the use of literacy tests for a five-year period and stationed federal poll watchers and voting registrars in states with persistent patterns of voting discrimination. It also required the Justice Department to approve any change to election law in those states.
Conyers, along with Representatives Diggs, Hawkins, and Powell, had visited Selma in February as part of a Member congressional delegation that investigated voting discrimination. An amended conference report passed both chambers by wide margins, and President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of into law on August 6, The measure dramatically increased voter registration in the short term.
By , 60 percent of all southern blacks were registered. Predictably, the bill had the biggest effect in the Deep South. In Mississippi, for instance, where less than 7 percent of African Americans qualified to vote in , 59 percent were on voter rolls by In southern states, particularly in cities such as Atlanta, Houston, and Memphis, the creation of districts with a majority of African-American constituents propelled greater numbers of African Americans into Congress by the early s.
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In northern cities, too, the growing influence of black voters reshaped Congress. African Americans constituted a growing percentage of the population of major U. Louis , and Shirley Chisholm Brooklyn were elected to Congress from redrawn majority-black districts in which white incumbents chose not to run. The final major piece of civil rights legislation of the decade was designed to extend the legal protections outlawing racial discrimination beyond the Civil Rights Act of and the Voting Rights Act of In President Johnson called for additional legislation to protect the safety of civil rights workers, end discrimination in jury selection, and eliminate restrictions on the sale or rental of housing.
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Over the next two years, opposition to this legislation emerged from both parties, leading to a protracted battle that culminated in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of Benefitting from Democratic majorities in both houses of Congress, the Johnson administration instituted immigration reforms and created federally funded programs to stimulate urban development, bolster consumer protection, strengthen environmental regulations, fund education programs, and expand the social safety net by providing health coverage through Medicare and Medicaid.
Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of on April 11, The act prohibited discrimination in the sale or rental of approximately 80 percent of the housing in the U. Newly elected Senator Edward Brooke of Massachusetts fourth from left attended the signing. At the start of the 90th Congress — , President Johnson once again called for a new civil rights bill. This time, the Democratic strategy was to propose several bills based on the component parts of the failed bill from the 89th Congress.
In so doing, Democrats hoped to pass as many of the individual bills as possible. During the tumultuous summer of , access to housing was at the forefront of a national discussion on urban policy, particularly after violence erupted in cities such as Detroit and Newark, New Jersey. House Democrats were unable to attract support for a fair housing bill in the summer of But the House did pass a narrow civil rights bill on August 15, , which established federal penalties for anyone forcibly interfering with the civil and political rights of individuals.
The bill specified that civil rights workers would be afforded similar protections when serving as advocates for those trying to exercise their rights. Many justified their resistance to the proposed legislation by highlighting the riots that broke out in July In the Senate, Republicans joined segregationist Democrats in what seemed to be formidable opposition to the bill. When the upper chamber finally began to debate the legislation in February , Senator Brooke joined with Senator Walter Mondale of Minnesota to draft an amendment designed to prohibit discrimination in the sale or rental of 91 percent of all housing in the nation.
On the Senate Floor, Brooke described the way segregated neighborhoods, typically far from employment opportunities, did extensive damage to the African-American community. When he declared that he was open to supporting the fair housing amendment with some revisions, negotiations began between the parties. The final bill included several concessions to Dirksen, such as reducing the housing covered by the fair housing provision.
Also, an amendment was added to the bill to attract the support of Senators who had been reluctant to vote for the civil rights bill, which made it a federal crime to cross state lines to participate in a riot. An additional amendment prohibited Native American tribal governments from restricting the exercise of specific constitutional rights on their lands.
For decades, opponents on the Rules Committee blocked civil rights initiatives, and Colmer sought to keep the Senate bill off the floor by sending it to a conference committee, where it could be debated and revised, or simply stalled, by Members. On April 4—the day before the Rules Committee was scheduled to vote on whether to send the bill to the House Floor or to send it to conference—Dr.
Martin Luther King Jr. The Rules Committee postponed its vote.
A violent weekend in cities across the nation resulted in 46 people killed, thousands injured, and millions of dollars in property damage before the National Guard helped quelled the disturbances. Unexpectedly, a majority of the committee defied the chairman and voted to send the bill to the floor. Representative Joseph D. Less than a week later, the House approved the Senate bill by a vote of to , and President Johnson signed it into law on April 11, The enforcement mechanisms of the fair housing provision, however, ended up being somewhat limited in that it required private individuals or advocacy groups to file suit against housing discrimination.
Next Section. See also David J. A useful overview of Congress and civil rights is Timothy N. Zelizer Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, : — Another useful secondary work, which touches on aspects of the voting rights reform legislative effort, is Steven F. Truman Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, : —, — Harry S. John T. Woolley and Gerhard, www. A more balanced interpretation is William I.http://businesspodden.com/map18.php
American Civil War
For an earlier, critical analysis of Eisenhower and his position on civil rights, see Chester Pach Jr. Eisenhower , revised edition Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, : — Carr , U. Sanders , U. Sims , U. Whittington, eds.
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