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Alcohol Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults
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Principles of Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Research-Based Guide
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Thesis speech examples. Cover letter for cleaner position. Igcse creative writing examples. What does cover letter includes. Internet addiction thesis statement. Exposure to stress such as emotional or physical abuse in childhood primes the brain to be sensitive to stress and seek relief from it throughout life; this greatly increases the likelihood of subsequent drug abuse and of starting drug use early. Drug use at an early age is an important predictor of development of a substance use disorder later.
Adolescent Alcohol Use: Risks and Consequences | Alcohol and Alcoholism | Oxford Academic
The majority of those who have a substance use disorder started using before age 18 and developed their disorder by age For example, Data collected in found that nearly 13 percent of those with a substance use disorder began using marijuana by the time they were These potentially lifelong consequences make addressing adolescent drug use an urgent matter. Chronic marijuana use in adolescence, for example, has been shown to lead to a loss of IQ that is not recovered even if the individual quits using in adulthood. The serious health risks of drugs compound the need to get an adolescent who is abusing drugs into treatment as quickly as possible.
Also, adolescents who are abusing drugs are likely to have other issues such as mental health problems accompanying and possibly contributing to their substance use, and these also need to be addressed.
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Adolescents in treatment report abusing different substances than adult patients do. For example, many more people aged 12—17 received treatment for marijuana use than for alcohol use in When adolescents do drink alcohol, they are more likely than adults to binge drink defined as five or more drinks in a row on a single occasion. Adolescents also may be less likely than adults to feel they need help or to seek treatment on their own.
Given their shorter histories of using drugs as well as parental protection , adolescents may have experienced relatively few adverse consequences from their drug use; their incentive to change or engage in treatment may correspond to the number of such consequences they have experienced. Only 10 percent of to year-olds needing substance abuse treatment actually receive any services. By far, the largest proportion of adolescents who receive treatment are referred by the juvenile justice system see figure. Given that adolescents with substance use problems often feel they do not need help, engaging young patients in treatment often requires special skills and patience.
Many treatment approaches are available to address the unique needs of adolescents. Whether delivered in residential or inpatient settings or offered on an outpatient basis, effective treatments for adolescents primarily consist of some form of behavioral therapy. Addiction medications, while effective and widely prescribed for adults, are not generally approved by the U.
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Such issues should be addressed at the same time as the substance use treatment. Enlisting and engaging the adolescent in treatment is only part of a sometimes long and complex recovery process. When an adolescent requires substance abuse treatment, follow-up care and recovery support e. These high rates of adverse consequences are consistent with the high rates of alcohol use reported in the surveys cited above, and they do not portend well for the health and well—being of many college students.
The influence of drinking context, such as place of residence for college students, is described below, along with findings on the secondhand consequences of college drinking. Table 6. Standard surveys about the prevalence of alcohol use generally do not gather information about key situational or contextual conditions, such as the location of drinking. This information, however, may have a significant bearing on the interpretation of survey findings and on the identification of appropriate targets for effective interventions and social policies.
Adolescents consume alcohol in a variety of contexts, including their own homes, homes of friends or acquaintances, bars or restaurants, outdoor settings e. Drinking outdoors and drinking in a car or truck were both significant predictors of alcohol—impaired driving i. Drinking in a car or truck including drinking by drivers was associated with a 2. Several studies have indicated that living circumstances are a major contextual influence on college student drinking behaviors Perkins After statistically controlling for several other variables that might influence binge drinking in college—such as binge drinking in high school, school grades, cigarette use, and importance of religion—fraternity residence was still associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of binge drinking.
Similar findings have been reported in other studies Presley et al. Fraternity residence could account for at least some of the college versus noncollege differences in episodic heavy drinking reported above.
Similarly, with a representative sample of almost 2, New York State college students ages 18 to 25 years , Barnes and colleagues reported that living in a dormitory instead of living at home with parents was associated with substantially higher levels of alcohol use and alcohol—related adverse consequences. In another study of drinking contexts, Wechsler and colleagues used data from a College Alcohol Study that surveyed 14, students from colleges.
The researchers first categorized college campuses as low, medium, or high with respect to the prevalence of binge drinking among students. Binge drinking was defined as low on campuses if it was reported by less than 36 percent of students; medium, if reported by 36 to 50 percent of students; or high, if reported by more than 50 percent of students. The researchers then assessed the association between the level of binge drinking on campus and adverse secondhand effects caused by students who were drinking but experienced by students who were nonbinging drinkers or abstainers.
Secondhand effects included events such as having been insulted or humiliated; having been pushed, hit, or assaulted; having experienced an unwanted sexual advance; having had studying or sleep interrupted; and having had to take care of a drunken student. The findings indicated that significantly higher levels of adverse secondary effects occurred on campuses with higher levels of binge drinking.
For example, 74 percent of nonbinge and abstaining students reported having had their studying or sleep interrupted on high binge—drinking campuses, compared with only 40 percent on low binge—drinking campuses.
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