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It is very common to confuse these. Comprise does form a passive, but it is used as follows: A, B and C are comprised in X. Distinguish: forbear refrain from forebear ancestor , and forego precede from forgo abstain from. Statements and states of affairs imply ; only people infer. Hence in the following infer should be replaced by imply :.


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The conclusion of the argument is false, which infers that one of the premisses must also be false. For the budding lawyers among you I hope there are some , note that there is a legal use of imply with agents, as when one implies a term in a contract, but this usage does not occur outside such contexts.

Insofar which may be written as three separate words , joined with as , means to the extent that ; inasmuch which must be written as a single word , joined with as , means since. Forasmuch as is a now obsolete alternative to inasmuch as. The in of this sentence should be deleted. In such contexts like should be replaced by as. The usual past participle of the verb prove is proved , not proven , which should be confined to legal contexts a verdict of not proven and a few set phrases such as of proven ability. To refute someone or something is to offer a successful argument for the falsity of the position to be refuted.

A common mistake is to treat refute as a performative verb, i.

Environment – Vocabulary List and Sentences in English

So you must not say. To anyone who does say that, the response should be: let's see your refutation. The single word sometime does exist, though it is now almost obsolete: it means former ly. To transpire means to become known. It does not mean to happen. Verbal means 'in words' spoken or written , not 'conveyed by word of mouth', which is oral.

Leibniz was a Christian and it was important to him to allow free choice in sinning. The whole shooting match about sin, repentance and forgiveness is central to the Christian faith. If you're not sure of any of these distinctions, look them up. It is perfectly acceptable to use these Latin abbreviations in formal contexts. You might use it if supplying extra words of your own in square brackets to eke out the sense of a quoted text. You will find that the philosophy texts you read make extensive use of Latin phrases; some of these have perfectly good English equivalents and are used merely as a matter of stylistic preference, but others are technical terms which could not be avoided except at the cost of inelegance and prolixity.

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In the former category fall, for example, eo ipso 'thereby' , toto caelo in the phrase ' toto caelo distinct', i. In the latter category we have, for example, a priori, a posteriori and a fortiori. The Oxford Dictionary and English Usage Guide and Hart's Rules the standard used by Oxford University Press say that the former two expressions should be written in roman type, the last one in italics.

The basic principle at work here is that foreign words and phrases should be italicised unless they have become Anglicised. Obviously this is a reasonable enough principle as far as it goes it would be absurd to italicise 'cafe', 'nuance' or 'rapport' , but I have to say that I am not happy with dropping the italics from a priori and a posteriori , and I do not myself do so: the reason is simply that a , when it appears in roman, is likely to be momentarily interpreted by the reader as the English indefinite article which of course it isn't in the Latin phrases in question: it's a preposition meaning 'from'.

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The mistake will only be momentary, no doubt: but the remember that the key principle of good writing is to facilitate the reader's understanding so far as possible, and that seems to me better achieved by continuing to italicise these phrases, as everyone does in the case of a fortiori. Since most written texts employ italicising both for marking non-English words or phrases and for emphasis, if you adopt my policy of italicising these Latin phrases you automatically encounter the following problem: suppose you want your use of a priori to receive special emphasis in a sentence; how do you mark that?

Obviously this is a general problem with phrases of foreign origin, not one restricted to the cases of a priori and a posteriori. And equally obviously there can be only one rational and quite general solution: to use different means of marking emphasis say, underlining and phrases of foreign origin say, italicising.


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  • With the advent of word processing, it is now very easy to combine distinct ways of marking text e. In the meantime, however, while we wait for my proposed reform to win general acceptance, there is no alternative, if you want to emphasise a foreign phrase which you are obliged to italicise anyway, to rephrasing the sentence so that the emphasis is clear without being graphically marked as such.

    And now on to note, in passing, the difference between onto and on to! In some contexts especially where Kant's views are in question this really means in advance, or independently, of having any experience at all, but the word is often used quite loosely to mean in advance, or independently, of having some particular experience, where the relevant experience is to be gathered from the context: for example, if one says it is not possible to work out someone's name a priori all that's meant is that certain kinds of experience - e.

    A posteriori is the contradictory of a priori i. A fortiori is used to signal the inference of something weaker from something stronger, as in the claim: God cannot bring about states of affairs involving a logical contradiction, and so a fortiori cannot affect the past the person making this claim is asserting or assuming, as many thinkers have done, that to affect the past would involve - be a particular case of - bringing about contradictory states of affairs. Back to previous menu Philosophy student resources Philosophy BA assessment methods Philosophy BA assessment criteria Philosophy essay writing: general points Philosophy essay writing: style Philosophy essay writing: word formation Philosophy essay writing: vocabulary Philosophy essay writing: grammar Philosophy essay writing: punctuation Philosophy essay writing: quotations Philosophy essay writing: references and bibliography Philosophy essay writing: external resources Philosophy essay writing for first year students Philosophy undergraduate dissertation FAQ Philosophy internet resources HAHP Examination and Assessment page.

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